pay me or pay me no mind
Any eyes on the river how's the green monsters floating down the river. I got tomarrow off so I thinking about taking a ride.
I was at B&W on Saturday morning & it looked pretty clear. The upper parts of the Delta are much better. We were out on Sunday & not that bad.Any eyes on the river how's the green monsters floating down the river. I got tomarrow off so I thinking about taking a ride.
Steve... you asked!!!!
Eichhornia crassipes, commonly known as (common) water hyacinthis an aquatic plant native to the Amazon basin, and is often considered a highly problematic invasive species outside its native range.
Its habitat ranges from tropical desert to subtropical or warm temperate desert to rainforest zones. The temperature tolerance of the water hyacinth is the following; its minimum growth temperature is 12° C (54° F); its optimum growth temperature is 25-30° C (77-86° F); its maximum growth temperature is 33-35° C (92-95° F), and its pH tolerance is estimated at 5.0 to 7.5. It does not tolerate water temperatures >35°C. Leaves are killed by frost and salt water, the latter trait being used to kill some of it by floating rafts of the cut weed to the sea. Water hyacinths do not grow when the averagesalinity is greater than 15% that of sea water.
The water hyacinth was introduced in 1884 at the World's Fair in New Orleans, also known as the World Cotton Centennial.[SUP][/SUP] The plants had been given away as a gifts by a group of visiting Japanese.[SUP][/SUP] Soon after, the water hyacinth was choking rivers, killing fish and stopping shipping in Louisiana, and an estimated 50 kilograms per square meter choked Florida's waterways.[SUP][/SUP] There were many attempts to eradicate the flower, including one by the U.S. War Department to pour oil over many of the flowers, but none worked.[SUP][/SUP] In 1910, a bold solution was put forth by the New Foods Society. Their plan was to import and release hippopotamus from Africa into the rivers and bayous of Louisiana. The hippopotamus would then eat the water hyacinth.
Water hyacinth can be controlled using three methods:
The application of herbicides for controlling water hyacinth has been carried out for many years and has been found successful when dealing with small infestations. A main concern when using herbicides is the environmental and health related effects, especially where people collect water for drinking and washing.
Physical control is performed by land based machines such as bucket cranes, draglines, or boorm or by water based machinery such as aquatic weed harvester,[SUP][/SUP] dredges, or vegetation shredder.[SUP][/SUP]Mechanical removal is seen as the best short-term solution to the proliferation of the plant. A project on Lake Victoria in Africa used various pieces of equipment to chop, collect, and dispose of 1500 hectares of water hyacinth in a 12 month period. It is however costly and requires the use of both land and water vehicles, but it took many years for the lake to become in poor condition and reclamation will be a continual process.
The effort began in the 1970s when USDA researchers released three species of weevil known to feed on water hyacinth into the United States, Neochetina bruchi,N. eichhorniae, and the water hyacinth borer Sameodes albiguttalis. Although meeting with limited success, the weevils have since been released in more than 20 other countries. However, the most effective control method remains the control of excessive nutrients and prevention of the spread of this species.
May 2010 the USDA’s Agricultural Research Service released Megamelus scutellaris as a biological control insect for the invasive waterhyacinth species.Megamelus scutellaris is a small planthopper insect native to Argentina. Researchers have been studying the effects of the biological control agent in extensive host-range studies since 2006 and concluded that the insect is highly host-specific and will not pose a threat to any other plant population other than the targeted water hyacinth. Researchers also hope that the biological control will be more resilient than existing biological controls to the herbicides that are already in place to combat the invasive water hyacinth.
Because of its extremely high rate of development, Eichhornia crassipes is an excellent source of biomass. One hectare of standing crop thus produce more than 70,000 m[SUP]3[/SUP] of biogas.[SUP][/SUP] According to Curtis and Duke, one kg of dry matter can yield 370 liters of biogas, giving a heating value of 22,000 kJ/m[SUP]3[/SUP] (580 Btu/ft[SUP]3[/SUP]) compared to pure methane (895 Btu/ft[SUP]3[/SUP])
Bengali farmers collect and pile up these plants to dry at the onset of the cold season; they then use the dry water hyacinths as fuel. They then use the ashes as fertilizer. In India, a ton of dried water hyacinth yield circa 50 liters ethanol and 200 kg residual fiber (7,700 Btu). Bacterial fermentation of one ton yields 26,500 cu ft gas (600 Btu) with 51.6% methane, 25.4% hydrogen, 22.1% CO
2, and 1.2% oxygen. Gasification of one ton dry matter by air and steam at high temperatures (800°) gives circa 40,000 ft[SUP]3[/SUP] (circa 1,100 m[SUP]3[/SUP]) natural gas (143 Btu/cu ft) containing 16.6% hydrogen, 4.8% methane, 21.7% CO, 4.1% CO
2, and 52.8%N. The high moisture content of water hyacinth, adding so much to handling costs, tends to limit commercial ventures. A continuous, hydraulic production system could be designed, which would provide a better utilization of capital investments than in conventional agriculture, which is essentially a batch operation.
The labour involved in harvesting water hyacinth can be greatly reduced by locating collection sites and processors on impoundments that take advantage of prevailing winds. Wastewater treatment systems could also favourably be added to this operation. The harvested biomass would then be converted to ethanol, natural gas, hydrogen and/or gaseous nitrogen, and fertilizer. The resultingbyproducts of water and fertilizer can both be used to irrigate nearby cropland.[SUP][/SUP]
Phytoremediation, waste water treatment
The roots of Eichhornia crassipes naturally absorb pollutants, including lead, mercury, and strontium-90, as well as some organic compounds believed to be carcinogenic, in concentrations 10,000 times that in the surrounding water.[SUP][/SUP] Water hyacinths can be cultivated for waste water treatment.
Water hyacinth is reported for its efficiency to remove about 60–80 % nitrogen (Fox et al. 2008) and about 69% of potassium from water (Zhou et al. 2007). The roots of water hyacinth were found to remove particulate matter and nitrogen in a natural shallow eutrophicated wetland
The plant is used as a carotene-rich table vegetable in Taiwan. Japanese sometimes cook and eat the green parts and inflorescence.
In Kedah (Java), the flowers are used for medicating the skin of horses. The species is a "tonic."
In East Africa, water hyacinths from Lake Victoria are used to make furniture, handbags and rope. The plant is also used as animal feed and organic fertilizer although there is controversy stemming from the high alkaline pH value of the fertilizer. Though a study found water hyacinths of very limited use for paper production,[SUP][/SUP] they are nonetheless being used for paper production on a small scale.
Thanks Paul. Seems like a lot of the weeds in our lakes and waterways have become polluted by shit from Africa.